A pipette is a thin tube used to transfer liquids and has been an indispensable tool for science since the time of Pasteur. He and other Victorian scientists used light bulbs, inlet tubes, and lint filters to increase suction and prevent contamination. Although their volume consistency is not good enough, these adaptations have stimulated a leap in microbiology and allowed researchers to safely transfer liquids with their fingers instead of their mouths. Nevertheless, the first report of infection occurred at the same time in 1893, when a researcher sucked the bacteria that caused typhoid fever with his mouth. Victims are the sentinels of future trends. By the 1950s, as many as 40% of laboratory-borne infections were caused by oral pipetting. A study by the US Army in 1966 reached an obvious conclusion that researchers should stop doing this. In spite of these recommendations, bacterial and viral infections, radiation poisoning, and chemical burns were common before the 1970s, when precision micropipettes became popular.
The manual piston stroke micropipette was introduced by Eppendorf in 1961. Compared with the previous iteration (oral or other methods), its accuracy and standardization have been significantly improved, depending on the unique suction and discharge power of each user . Gilson later updated this technology to achieve adjustable volume control. The introduction of microliter-oriented instruments will help push biomedical sciences into very small areas. As it shifted to the production of microcentrifuge and graduated micro test tubes, it changed the way researchers solve scientific problems and changed the industry itself. The latest progress in pipetting technology stems from the increase in experimental throughput. The success of the Human Genome Project and the rise of deep sequencing platforms prompted companies including Eppendorf to start introducing electronic pipettes. Many laboratories now have a range of pipetting options, including electronic repeaters and multichannel pipettes, as well as a full range of manual P20, P200, and P1000 pipettes for every worker.
However, choice can sometimes be an experimental danger. It is frustrating to look at the small volume of student pipettes. For example, use P2 to add 0.27 μl of enzyme in 10% glycerol to the reaction tube. In addition, because the manual piston can exceed its measurement accuracy point, people will mistakenly measure the volume beyond the calibration range. Since manual pipettes are particularly susceptible to hysteresis, transferring seemingly the same volume to many samples can actually cause a lot of errors. Finally, when we can't even see the small tick marks between the micro-appreciations, how can we people over 35 hope to be accurate?
The electronic pipette contains a motor that can precisely adjust the aspiration and dispensing rate, thereby reducing air bubbles and barrel contamination. In addition, the repeat pipette reduces measurement errors in experiments with many samples and repeats. The button function provides ergonomic advantages, avoids mechanical wear and tear associated with force-dependent actions such as tip ejection, and avoids laboratory personnel injuries and deaths such as pipette thumbs. Electronic pipettes are usually programmable, allowing protocols to be stored and modified, saving overall tip usage and improving the efficiency of experimental setup. Some vendors take this technology one step further and create linked smart pipetting systems. Thermo Fisher Scientific offers programmable E1 pipettes that support Bluetooth, but they require proprietary ClipTips. Similarly, Gilson offers the Pipetman M series, which connects to the Trackman digital tablet via Bluetooth to track complex porous pipetting tasks in real time and store the data for further analysis. Finally, although the price of an electric pipette is usually 2 to 3 times that of a manual pipette, the increase in accuracy and the efficiency and confidence in the results are very worthwhile.
Label: Pipette Product Resource: Product Focus
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